Prior to the 20th century, geologic discoveries were made by prospectors looking for gold. In the 20th century, geologists armed with the necessary knowledge and technology took the lead. They have provided the economy and industry with many different kinds of mineral raw materials: precious and rare metals, nuclear ore, hydrocarbons, rare earth ore, and other minerals. In the 21 century the exhaustion of the “visual” earth minerals has significantly complicated the task of geologists and prospectors. They have had to adopt, in addition to ground-based methods, air and space methods for their searches.
Laboratories can now identify up to 60 elements of the Periodic Table. New technologies have opened up the possibility of extracting metal from stubborn and mineral poor ore. Nevertheless, the discovery of new deposits nowadays is not only a lengthy venture, but also an expensive and difficult hard process.
How to find the a way out of this situation, with increasing demand for raw mineral materials and complexity in their prospecting?
One – option is to train prospectors. Early successes have already been achieved in this realm. Gold nuggets are sought out with metal detectors. The application of advanced geochemical testing of slope sediments enabled the prospector Shawn Ryan to identify the underlying, native sources of the legendary Klondike placer gold. Click here for earthexplorer.com
Geologists had not been able to do this for over 100 years.
Canadian geologists have successfully applied lithochemical searches leakage flux. It has been established that one lithochemical sample can give the assessment for an area in dozens of square kilometers. It appears possible to increase such area estimations to 100 and even 200 square kilometers. This is equal not only to the area of a deposit but to an ore field and region. In both countries laboratories have began to receive many hundreds of thousands of lithochemical samples for analysis per year. The high costs of analysis (up to $40-50/test) have been repaid by many deposit finds. Diagnostic medium-scale and detailed large-scale searching mechanisms have followed on the heels of the small-scale recognition stage.
After analyzing 31000 lithochemical samples a Yukon author obtained the following number of elements ranked by activity brings (max / min):
Pb-8090, Au-6260, As-3800 (19000), Mn-5000, Sb-1700 (2800), Hg-1190(2780),Cu-1125, Cd-1100,Ni-1030 (240),V-1782, Br-1740, B-1000, U-877(1603), Ag-870, Mo-815 (2480), Ce-725, F-690, Lu-625, Zn-600 (2400), La-563, Ba-550 (5850), Co-550, Se-500, Sm-465, Ti-444, Br-435, W-428 (800), Eu-372, Sc-336, Cs-305, Hf-300,Cr-300,Rb-299, Tl-284, Sn-286 (3680), S-282, Mg-256, Bi-233, LOI-200, Na-152, Sr-140,Fe-83, Th-69(209), Ga-64, Ta-44, K-40, Tb-40, Yb-36, P-30, Te-27
If prospectors using tray panning found only gold in the Yukon, the analysis of lithochemical samples not only confirmed its presence, but also suggested the possibility of discovering deposits of other minerals. Lack of bottom sample duplicates and the low representativeness and weight of analized river deposits not only make control and mineralogical analyzes impossible, but also allow for the possibility of not noticing deposits.
These shortcomings of bottom samples are completely absent in the Russian method of spectral analysis of grey fractions in great volumes of river mouth panned samples by the author’s Geological-Prospecting Method (GPM) of the perspective areas forfinding large deposits of non-traditional formations of a wide range of minerals. The GPM methods efficiency is heightened by a number of factors: the gross method of testing the river sediment, its enrichment by sluicing up to 300-500 times, and its preserving duplicate samples. This method does not exclude the use of the most ancient testing methods with such improvised tools as the pan, scoop or sluice.
Even the treatment of the results of laboratory analysis of riparian geochemical samples is possible for a lauperson, who can easily replace the old grading visual contents- blank – single gold signs:- signs – weight with the new graduation: 0-10-100-1000 element content units issued by the laboratory.
At the same time one can see gold passing through the black mineral concentrate.
GPM which originated in Chukotka (1975) and other areas of Russia, quickly gained recognition and continues to succeed in prospecting searches.
Panned sample-geochemichal testing rivers after analysis of bottom samples has enabled the discovery of ore with a high gold content (60g/t), silver content (19818g/t), tin content (up to 12%), and palladium content (up to 2.03 g/t). Mineralogical analysis of duplicate samples, even performed many years later, have aided the discovery of diamond mineral satellites.
Geochemical resources (indicated) in anomalous areas of Russia confirmed by the detailed study of samples (Au, Ag), were as follows:
Au – 101 t; Ag – 3800 t; Sn – 45000 t; Cu – 120000 t; Bi – 32700 t; Mo – 26700 t; Pb – 30000 t; W – 4.7mln. t, Be- 2900 t; Zn-9.1mln.t; Y–1100 t.
GPM applied in British Columbia (Canada) has led to even more unexpected results. Testing of the Fraser River Delta area with watershed on over 220000 sq km (Figure 1) only one group of 26 point sample tested by spectral analysis in a Russian laboratory showed the following intensity of elements (max ppm/min ppm):
Cu -24, Ni -20, Pb -20 (1%), Bi -15, Mo-10, Sn -10, Ag -8-40, Ga -7, Zn -6, Cr -6, Co -4, V -4, B -3, Zr -3-4, As -3-8, Mn -3, Ti -3, Ge -2.
Figure 1. Fraser River water intake area, tested in the delta (Vancouver, Burnaby)
The presence of a duplicate and double control testing in new locations and sample analysis in a Canadian laboratory confirmed the numbers of mineral activity as follows:
Cu (716-791), Y(383-512), Pb (212-255), Zn (238-274), Mn (241-258), Fe (152-211), Ti (90-125), Ce (107-120), Ni (77-161), Mo (115-116), Ba (66-131), Na (70-110), Al (70-107), Sr (76-83),Li (27-67), Au (4-47), Co (45-49), Ca (40-50), As (14-30), Mg (30-48), V (18-30), Cr (29-53), P (23-30), Rb (27-33), Zr (27-37), Ga (27-32), Sb (9-18), Th (11-14), Ag (13-18), La (10-11), Cs (9-48), Nb (8-9), K (7-90), Cd (6-10), Hf (4-4.6), Sn (3-4), U(0.3-3), Bi (2-2.5), Sc (2-33), Tl (1-1), Be (1-1), B (0-2), Hg (0-3), Te (0-1), (W-S-Se-Ge-Ta-In-Re-Pd- Pt)-?
Highlighted are the items with already known deposits and manifestations.
Already working: Analysis revealed Mineral deposit: Gibraltar(Cu, Mo), Highland Valley (Cu, Mo, Ag, Au, Pb, Zn), Endako (Mo), Mount Polley (Cu, Au, Ag), Bralorn (Au,Ag, Pb, Cu), Prospect Valley (Au), Ajax (Cu,Au), New Afton Mine (Au,Cu), Sullivan Mine (Pb,Zn,Ag,Sn,Cu,Au,Fe,S,Sb,Cd,Bi,In,W), Giant Mascot Mine (Ni, Cu, Cr,Co,Au,Ag,Pt,Pd,Zn), Blue Hawk Mine and Giant Maskot Mine (Au,Ag,Pb,Cu,Zn), Minto Mine (Au,Cu,Ag,Pb,Zn), Pioneer Mine (Au,Ag,Pb,Zn,Cu,Sb,W), 4 placer (Au)- Fraser River, Thompson, Cariboo, Omineca.
Result of the GPM: a recommendation of searches for new deposits Сu (Mo), Y(Ti,Ce), Pb, Zn, Mn, Au…
From the above analysis of river sediments in the Fraser Delta Valley we can assume the presence of, first of all, copper, rare earth metals, and polymetallic deposits.
Russian scientists in the collective monograph “Geology, Minerageny, Mineral Resources of the world at the turn of the 21st century. A Comprehensive Study”, Ministry of Natural Resources, Russian Academy of Sciences. St. Petersburg, 2000, stated that the region of British Columbia is perspective for major and unique porphyry copper-molybdenum and polymetallic deposits.
This statement by scientists and the results of the river-bed sediment geochemical testing are supported by already known deposits, such as
Figure 2. Map of natural resources in British Columbia. Large and unique deposits.
Only large and unique deposits are indicated. Fragment of the geological-minerageny map of the world. Scale 1:15 000 000. Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences. 2000).
Figure 3.<British Columbia produces copper, molybdenum, zinc, lead, silver, gold, aluminum and other metals from eight mines and two smelters. The province has potential to provide nickel, platinum, palladium, tungsten and a number of other metals>. (B.C. Government).
The geochemical symphony of the Panned Sample also opens other mysteries of the Fraser River Valley.
Placer gold, discovered here in the middle of the 19th century is still not supported by findings of its native sources. Can they be found and of what type will they be?
Geochemists answer in the affirmative. For example: increased content in tributary of Au, Cu, As, Bi, in the combinations with W, Sn, Ag, Pb, Zn, Mn, Mo, Li bespeaks of the possibility of having large deposits of black shale formation with gold and rare metals mineralization.
According to the analysis, only one sample from a water intake area of 220 000 km sq makes it possible to predict the existence of large fields previously not studied, with rare earth metals. It also suggests the possibility of evaluation in the Yukon not by 31 000 sampling of stream-river bottom sediments, but by 310 Panned Sample -geochemical samples. Mineralogical and others analysis of duplicate samples will suggest the paths to diamond areas, enable examining of the expected type of ore, level of erosion and availability of blind deposits.
The music of Panned Sample that has sounded so promising in different areas of Russia and Canada will also yield wonderful discoveries in other parts of the world.
Figure 4. Swipe licensing of vacant space in the area Klondike placers after the legendary finds of Prospector Ryan of prospective area for gold ore. 2007 and 2011.
The second gold rush in the Klondike, the search for gold ore, has led to the problem of assessing large areas of acquired firms (Figure 4). It is here that we need an efficient, fast, and inexpensive method, GPM, for finding promising areas and deposits.
Figure 5. Yukon. 2013. The result of the second gold rush.
Results of the analysis of geochemical samples 31000 (max/min):
Pb-8090, Au-6260, As-3800 (19000), Mn-5000, Sb-1700 (2800), Hg-1190(2780),Cu-1125, Cd-1100,Ni-1030 (240),
V-1782, Bi-1740, B-1000, U-877(1603), Ag-870, Mo-815 (2480), Ce-725, F-690, Lu-625, Zn-600 (2400), La-563,
Ba-550 (5850), Co-550, Se-500, Sm-465, Ti-444, Br-435, W-428 (800), Eu-372, Sc-336, Cs-305, Hf-300,Cr-300,
Rb-299, Tl-284, Sn-286 (3680), S-282, Mg-256, LOI-200, Na-152, Sr-140,Fe-83, Th-69(209), Ga-64, Ta-44, K-40, Tb-40, Yb-36, P-30, Te-27
Anomalous fields by content: Pb-4, Au-17 (1000-6260), As-5, Mn-2, Sb-3, Hg-3, Cu-6, Cd-2, Ni-2,V-1, B-5,Ag-5…
Yukon must seek analogue Carlin (Au, As, Sb, Hg, Ba,) It is necessary to apply the method of the PMG.
The reason for the low efficiency of the second gold rush to the Klondike – relying on outdated methods of search. Shawn Ryan and other fanatical continues to search for new deposits, focusing only on the selection of tens of thousands of samples of slope deposits. Here’s what he wrote about Ryan in May 2011 New York City Times Magazine:
Figure 6 Prospector Shawn Ryan
“Ryan Gold Corp. (RYG) added three cents to 14 cents on 925,000 shares. Interim president David Schmidt has moved to vice-president of corporate development so executive chairman Murray John can take over as president. Mr. John is also the president of Corona Gold Corp. (CRG: $0.41) and a director of Dundee Precious Metals Inc. (DPM: $3.14). At Ryan, he plans to suspend exploration in the Yukon and look for more advanced properties elsewhere. The company spent $25-million exploring in the Yukon over the past two years. In 2011, it optioned 50 gold properties from prospector Shawn Ryan, bringing on the well-known prospector as president. At the time, Underworld Resources, which optioned its White Gold property from Mr. Ryan, had just been taken over by Kinross Gold Corp.
Ryan Gold was hoping Mr. Ryan could bestow on it a similar send-off. Results from Ryan Gold’s exploration programs, however, were disappointing. Fortunately, the company still has $20-million in working capital from a $52-million financing (at $2 and $2.25) in 2011. Dundee bought 4.9 million of the $2.25 shares, bringing its holdings to 10 million shares. They have since lost $20-million in value. According to SEDI, Dundee made another large purchase last month, buying 9.4 million shares privately at 14 cents. This was just about the same number of shares Mr. Ryan held when he resigned as president last December. Now he is promoting a private company called GroundTruth Exploration, which uses remote-controlled drones to conduct aerial surveys over gold properties. He says the drones can help lower exploration costs by one-fifth”. .
Error Sean Ryan-very expensive (http://ceo.ca/2013/11/26/ryg-ryan-gold-abandons-yukon-dream/).
Gennady N. Kaplenkov –
Maks Thompson translator.